The Museum opened in its current location (at 2 Szabadság Street) in 2000, but it had been established by the City of Pécs by over 100 years ago. Its exhibitions have changed over time, and it had to be re-established on several occasions. The Museum remains true to the traditions of its predecessors, and continuously expands its collection through research, absorbing private collections, and new purchases. This has made it one of the most important guardians and exhibitors of the past and present natural treasures of Baranya County and the whole of South West Hungary. Some of its most treasured possessions include the botanical collection of Adolf Olivér Horváth, the collections of bird eggs donated by people from Pécs and the surrounding areas, and the insect collections founded by Antal Gebhardt that have been expanded greatly through systematic research in the past few decades. The museum also holds some exotic curiosities, such as collections of tropical butterflies and sea slugs. This is also where the mammoth remains found near Pécs and the footprint of the “Mecsek dinosaur" are kept. The collections and research findings of the Museum are published in selections of studies and presented at various exhibitions. Current exhibitions include “Baranya Landscapes", which introduces the rich natural heritage of Baranya County, including the Mecsek and Villányi Mountains, the floodplains of the Danube and the Drava River, and the local wildlife. The plants and animals that live here are a unique medley of Mediterranean, Atlantic-Pannonian, and Continental species.
In addition to the exhibitions about Baranya County, the Museum also offers a selection of temporary exhibitions, each lasting for two or three months and showing off the very best of the travelling collections of Hungarian and foreign museums.
The Museum of Science welcomes visitors all year with various activities related to the collections and exhibitions, an array of seasonal programmes, and tours guided by experts.