The effects and outcome leading to communism, then to FREEDOM
|June 4, 1920
||The treaty of Treanon imposed by the Allies,
deprives Hungary of two thirds of it's territory and half of it's
population. Hungarian resentment runs high and is further stirred up by
the Horthy regime which makes the treaty the principal target of its
propaganda. Hitler and Mussolini are to exploit this situation. The
first anti Semite law, introducing a numerous clausus in universities.
||Second anti Semite law adopted, as a result of
pressure exerted by Hitler's regime. It totally barred Jews from
entering higher education.
|June 27, 1941
||war is declared on the USSR
||Admiral Horthy makes secret contacts with the Allies.
Arrow Cross (the Hungarian Nazis) seizes power, with the subsequent
persecution and deportation of Jews. 700,000 Jews are deported, mainly
to Auschwitz and Birkenau. Roul Wallenberg, the Swedish Counsel in
Budapest, saves several thousand of them before his disappearance after
being abducted by the Soviets.
||A republic is proclaimed. Zoltan Tildy becomes president. A new currency, the forint (still in place today) replaces the pengo.
between the two blocks, the east and the west; marks the beginning of
the "Cold War". The red army is put into Hungary.
countries of the East form a single bloc with the USSR. The struggle
against the Church begins. Cardinal Mindszenty is arrested on December
26, charged with plotting against the State.
leader of the Communist Party, Matyas Rakosi, becomes the head of the
government. Trial of Laszlo Rajk, the home office minister accused of
Titoism. His former friends, including Janos Kadar, abandon him. He is
sentenced to death and executed.
||The death of Stalin heralds a period of eased
tension. Imre Nagy, a communist reformer becomes the Prime Minister. A
period of trouble follows, marked by the incessant struggle between the
reformers and hard-line Stalinist. Nagy is excluded from the Hungarian
Workers Party in March 1955 and replaced by Matyas Rakosi.
wind of freedom blows, particularly in intellectual circles. Laszlo
Rajk is rehabilitated in March 27. On October 14, Nagy is reintegrated
into the party. October 1956 marked the start of the People's uprising
against the control of the USSR and communism.
|June 16, 1958
||Execution of Imre Nagy in Budapest, together with several of his supporters.
||The party led by Janos Kadar, takes lenient measures. Kadar undertakes
economic and agricultural reforms. He is to stay in power until 1988.
During these years, he endeavors to have any conflict or divergence from
the USSR and to maintain good relationships with the West. He launches a
plan for an International Exhibition with Austria on the theme "a
bridge towards the future". However, it never materializes. In 1980 is
in the throws of economic difficulties. It survives, thanks to credit
facilities from the West, but is heavily indebted. An economic crisis
breaks out in 1987. Discontent grows. On May 27, 1988, during and
extraordinary meeting of the PSOH (the Communist Party), Kadar is
||In Hegyeshalom, on May 3, the barbed wire separating Hungary and Austria
is symbolically cut at the main frontier post between the two countries
by the minister of foreign affairs, Gyula Horn and his Austrian
counterpart. On June 16th, Budapest holds a national funeral ceremony in
memory of Imre Nagy and the 1956 victims. On July 6th, the Hungarian
Supreme Court officially pronounces their government. During the night
of September 10, around 700,000 East Germans who had come to Hungary are
authorized to enter West Germany via Austria. On October 23, the
Communist-Socialist Republic becomes the Hungarian Republic.
|Nov.. 11, 1989
||The fall of the Berlin wall, heralds the dismemberment of the Soviet "Eastern bloc".
||March 8; the signing of an agreement for the departure of the Soviet
troops, before June 30th, 1991.. On March 25 and April 8, the first free
elections are held. The "Democratic Forum" party comes to power. Jozsef
Antal becomes elected as Prime Minister. Arpad Goncz is elected as
first President of the newly freed republic, by parliament. In November,
Hungary joins the Council of Europe.
||Hungary becomes an associate member of the European Union.
||General elections are held and won by the Socialist Party (comprised of
mostly communist politicians of the past). Gyula Horn becomes Prime
Minister and forms a coalition government with the "League of Free
||In a referendum, the Hungarians pronounce themselves in favor of their
country joining NATO. the center-right wing FIDESZ party, wins the
general elections as the second non-communist/non-socialist government
(since Antal Jozsef). Viktor Orban becomes Prime Minister.
||A re-organized Socialist party wins the elections and chose Peter
Meggyesi as Prime Minister, who after some party turmoil chose to step
down. Making way for Ferenc Gyurcsany.
||Hungary's membership to the European union is accepted.
||European Union rules and practices are adopted and merged into the Hungarian Economy.