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Soviet Power

Soviet Power

The effects and outcome leading to communism, then to FREEDOM

June 4, 1920 The treaty of Treanon imposed by the Allies, deprives Hungary of two thirds of it's territory and half of it's population. Hungarian resentment runs high and is further stirred up by the Horthy regime which makes the treaty the principal target of its propaganda. Hitler and Mussolini are to exploit this situation. The first anti Semite law, introducing a numerous clausus in universities.
1938 Second anti Semite law adopted, as a result of pressure exerted by Hitler's regime. It totally barred Jews from entering higher education.
June 27, 1941 war is declared on the USSR
1943 Admiral Horthy makes secret contacts with the Allies.
October 1944 The Arrow Cross (the Hungarian Nazis) seizes power, with the subsequent persecution and deportation of Jews. 700,000 Jews are deported, mainly to Auschwitz and Birkenau. Roul Wallenberg, the Swedish Counsel in Budapest, saves several thousand of them before his disappearance after being abducted by the Soviets.
1946 A republic is proclaimed. Zoltan Tildy becomes president. A new currency, the forint (still in place today) replaces the pengo.
1946-1953 Opposition between the two blocks, the east and the west; marks the beginning of the "Cold War". The red army is put into Hungary.
1948 The countries of the East form a single bloc with the USSR. The struggle against the Church begins. Cardinal Mindszenty is arrested on December 26, charged with plotting against the State.
1949 The leader of the Communist Party, Matyas Rakosi, becomes the head of the government. Trial of Laszlo Rajk, the home office minister accused of Titoism. His former friends, including Janos Kadar, abandon him. He is sentenced to death and executed. 
1953-1955 The death of Stalin heralds a period of eased tension. Imre Nagy, a communist reformer becomes the Prime Minister. A period of trouble follows, marked by the incessant struggle between the reformers and hard-line Stalinist. Nagy is excluded from the Hungarian Workers Party in March 1955 and replaced by Matyas Rakosi.
1956 A wind of freedom blows, particularly in intellectual circles. Laszlo Rajk is rehabilitated in March 27. On October 14, Nagy is reintegrated into the party. October 1956 marked the start of the People's uprising against the control of the USSR and communism.
June 16, 1958 Execution of Imre Nagy in Budapest, together with several of his supporters.
1963-1988 The party led by Janos Kadar, takes lenient measures. Kadar undertakes economic and agricultural reforms. He is to stay in power until 1988. During these years, he endeavors to have any conflict or divergence from the USSR and to maintain good relationships with the West. He launches a plan for an International Exhibition with Austria on the theme "a bridge towards the future". However, it never materializes. In 1980 is in the throws of economic difficulties. It survives, thanks to credit facilities from the West, but is heavily indebted. An economic crisis breaks out in 1987. Discontent grows. On May 27, 1988, during and extraordinary meeting of the PSOH (the Communist Party), Kadar is dismissed.
1989 In Hegyeshalom, on May 3, the barbed wire separating Hungary and Austria is symbolically cut at the main frontier post between the two countries by the minister of foreign affairs, Gyula Horn and his Austrian counterpart. On June 16th, Budapest holds a national funeral ceremony in memory of Imre Nagy and the 1956 victims. On July 6th, the Hungarian Supreme Court officially pronounces their government. During the night of September 10, around 700,000 East Germans who had come to Hungary are authorized to enter West Germany via Austria. On October 23, the Communist-Socialist Republic becomes the Hungarian Republic.
Nov.. 11, 1989 The fall of the Berlin wall, heralds the dismemberment of the Soviet "Eastern bloc".
1990 March 8; the signing of an agreement for the departure of the Soviet troops, before June 30th, 1991.. On March 25 and April 8, the first free elections are held. The "Democratic Forum" party comes to power. Jozsef Antal becomes elected as Prime Minister. Arpad Goncz is elected as first President of the newly freed republic, by parliament. In November, Hungary joins the Council of Europe.
1993 Hungary becomes an associate member of the European Union.
1994 General elections are held and won by the Socialist Party (comprised of mostly communist politicians of the past). Gyula Horn becomes Prime Minister and forms a coalition government with the "League of Free Democrats" party.
1998 In a referendum, the Hungarians pronounce themselves in favor of their country joining NATO. the center-right wing FIDESZ party, wins the general elections as the second non-communist/non-socialist government (since Antal Jozsef). Viktor Orban becomes Prime Minister.
2003 A re-organized Socialist party wins the elections and chose Peter Meggyesi as Prime Minister, who after some party turmoil chose to step down. Making way for Ferenc Gyurcsany.
2004 Hungary's membership to the European union is accepted.
2005 European Union rules and practices are adopted and merged into the Hungarian Economy.

 


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